Most gardeners think that soil tests are done only to find out what nutrients are deficient. However, it is just as important to know if you have adequate levels of nutrients so you don't add unneeded fertilizer.


The most basic soil test checks pH and the levels of phosphorus and potassium. Most of the lawn and garden soil tests that come out of our soil-testing lab show more than adequate levels of both phosphorus and potassium. If those nutrients are not needed, applying them is a waste of money and can be a source of pollution. In extreme cases, excess phosphorus can interfere with the uptake of micronutrients. So, if you haven't taken a soil test in several years, take one this spring.


Begin by taking a representative sample from a number of locations in the garden or lawn. Each sample is composed of about 8 sub-samples that go from the surface to 6 to 8 inches deep. Mix the sub-samples together in a clean container and select about 1 pint of soil. For more detail on taking a soil test, click here and choose "Soil Analysis" in the left column.


Take the soil to your local K-State Research and Extension office to have tests done at the K-State soil-testing laboratory for a fee. A soil test determines fertility problems, not other conditions that may exist such as poor drainage, poor soil structure, soil borne diseases or insects, chemical contaminants or damage, or shade with root competition from other plants. All of these conditions may reduce plant performance but cannot be evaluated by a soil test. If you are in need of a soil probe, the Extension Offices in both Ellis and Barton Co. have probes that can be checked out to the public.


Lauren Fick is the Horticulture Extension Agent for the Cottonwood District. She can be contacted by e-mail at lfick@k-state.edu or by phone at 785-628-9430


Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer.